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Educators' Resources © 1998 - 2017


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2017 - May - United Tribes of Michigan resolution condemning use of the word Redskins legislation by Michigan and other educational institutions

2013 - October - United South and Eastern Tribes, Inc. (USET)  resolution calling on the National Football League to end the use of the Washington, D.C.  racially offensive slur team name.  USET

2013- April - United Tribes of Michigan resolution in support of anti-Redskins legislation

2009 - May - National Indian Education Association resolution calling "for the immediate elimination of race-based Indian logos, mascots, and names from educational institutions throughout the Nation." 

2007- November - Standing Rock Sioux Resolution definitively stating that the "Standing Rock Sioux Tribe opposes the use of the UND "Fighting Sioux nickname and logo..."

2007 - August - Society for the Study of Social Problems resolution endorsing  retirement  of Native American nicknames, logos and mascots in sport.

June 2007 - Arkansas State University mascot committee resolution recommending change

2007 - March - Statement by the Council of the American Sociological Association on Discontinuing the Use of Native American Nicknames, Logos and Mascots in Sport.  Also includes related bibliography

2006 - December - Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council Address to Public School Districts Regarding Indian Nicknames,  Logos and Mascots

2005 -December - Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs advocate the elimination of Native American Indian mascots and symbols in the state public schools

2005 - October -  North American Society for the Sociology of Sport - Native American Imagery Resolution   "call for the discontinuation of Aboriginal/Native American symbols, names, imagery, culture and personas in sport..."

2005 - August -  American Psychological Association Resolution   Recommending the Immediate Retirement of American Indian Mascots, Symbols, Images, and Personalities by schools, Colleges, Universities, Athletic Teams, and Organizations

2005 - March -  Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians Tribal Council condemning the use of Indian likenesses or cultural items as mascots, logos, and nicknames by professional sports teams, universities, colleges and other schools

2004 - October - School Board Blues - This insightful docu-memoir finely details the highly charged emotional and political environment associated with a years-long struggle to change an American Indian sports team token in the Onteora, New York, school district as well as subsequent school board controversies. 

2003 - November - Students Making All Races Tolerant (SMART) "The use of Native American descriptions naming Sports Teams Nicknames, Logos, and Mascot in all Public Schools and Higher Educations of Learning have detrimental effects on Native Americans' self-esteem, self-concept, and a host of performance indications.  Therefore, we abhor its use."

2003 - June - The Michigan State Board of Education resolution that "supports and strongly recommends the elimination of American Indian mascots, nicknames, logos, fight songs, insignias, antics, and team descriptors by all Michigan schools."

2003 - February - Eagle and Condor Indigenous Peoples' Alliance "calling for the elimination of stereotypical Native American Indian, ethnic, or religious images in institutions where they are employed as mascots or team names, especially when promoted by public educational institutions."

2003 - February - Resolution of the Greater Tulsa Area Indian Affairs Commission  In support of the elimination and/or change of the Union Public School District's sports team name Redskins, logo, and/or mascot and false imagery of Greater Tulsa Area American Indians

2002 - November - The Tribal Council of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians officially and publicly declares its condemnation of the use of Indian mascots, logos, team names and nicknames by public schools in the States of Michigan and throughout the United States.

2002 - August - New Hampshire State Board of Education Resolution endorsing the elimination of the use of Indian sports team mascots

2002 - February - North Carolina State Advisory Council on Indian Education - Resolution in Support of Eliminating American Indian Descriptions Naming Mascots, Logos, and Sport Team Nicknames for North Carolina Public Schools.

2002 - February - Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Board adopted a resolution against discriminatory logos, names, mascots and nicknames

2002 - January - The Iowa Civil Rights Commission passed a Resolution Opposing the Use of Native American Images, Mascots, and Team Names in Iowa

2001, December 4 - Illinois State University Student Government Association - Resolution endorsing NASA (Native American Student's Organization) Efforts to Combat Racially Stereotypical Mascots

2001, November/December - Resolution by the American Counseling Association calling for the elimination of stereotypical American Indian imagery.  The American Counseling Association is the world's largest association representing professional counselors.

2001, October - The Minnesota Indian Education Association resolution in opposition to the University of North Dakota's use of the "Fighting Sioux" name and logo.

2001, July - Inter-Tribal mascot resolution by the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muskogee, Cherokee, and Seminole Nations

2001, July - The National Conference for Community and Justice issued a Statement in Opposition of American Indian Mascots

2001, June - The Modern Language Association resolution on mascots and symbols. The MLA includes over 30,000 members in the fields of English, foreign languages, and linguistics.

2001, April - United States Commission on Civil Rights position statement urging retirement of "Indian" sports team mascots, nicknames, and symbols from all levels of educational institutions.

2001, April - New York State Education Department position statement urging retirement of "Indian" sports team mascots, nicknames, and symbols in its public schools.

2001, March - Maryland Commission on Indian Affairs Resolution

2000-2001 National Education Association resolution which reaffirms its 1991/92 Resolutions denouncing the use of ethnic related mascots, nicknames and symbols.  The National Education Association (NEA), is the largest democratic education organization of its kind in the world.

2000, July -  League of United Latin American Citizens resolutions showing support to Native Americans in their campaign against racial slurs

2000, July - Native American Caucus of the California Democratic Party resolution regarding that State's public schools use of "Redskins."

2000 Mascot resolution by the Associated Students Council of San Diego State University

2000 Resolution of the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs 

2000 Native American Caucus of the California Democratic Party resolutions on the use of "Redskins" and "Indian" mascots in public schools. 

2000 Resolution by the Southern California Indian Center

2000 Medicine Wheel Intertribal Association resolution, Bogalusa, Louisiana

2000 Resolution by the Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, Santa Ana, California

2000 Resolution by the Tennessee Chapter of the National Coalition for the Preservation of Indigenous Cultures.

2000 Resolution by the Peoria Tribe of Indians calling upon the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, to retire its "Chief Illiniwek" mascot.

2000 Southern Poverty Law Center letter to trustees of the University of Illinois urging retirement of Illiniwek

2000 List of Organizations Endorsing Retirement of "Indian" Sports Team Tokens

2000 Legal reviews bibliography on trademark and copyright issues relating to "Indian" sports team tokens 

1999  Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Resolution "On the Negative Effects of Stereotyping Native Americans"

1999 U.S. Census Bureau Policy on Using Athletic Teams with American Indian or Alaska Native Names in Promoting Census 2000  

1999 Georgia House of Representatives resolution (drafted but not passed)

1999 Hutchinson Human Relations Commission resolution, Hutchinson, Kansas (Adopted by Hutchinson City Council - March 2000)

1999 Illiniwek stance of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas

1999 mascot resolution adopted by the NAACP and the 1992 version

1999 mascot resolution of the Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs covers many important points and issues.

1999 Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council Resolution to eliminate the use of depictions of and cultural references to American Indians as mascots, logos, and team nicknames in Wisconsin public schools.

1998 Resolution by the Kansas Association for Native American Education, that  "...calls for the elimination of use of American Indian mascots and logos in all public and private schools in the State of Kansas..."

1998 Resolution from the Governors' Interstate Indian Council that "reaffirms its previously established view and encourages all public schools, sports teams, and private businesses to discontinue using Native American mascots in their slogans and/or symbols."

1998 Statement on team names by the American Jewish Committee which notes that it "deplores and opposes the use of racial or ethnic stereotypes in the names or titles of business, professional, sport or their public entitles when the affected group has not chosen the name itself."

1997 Los Angeles School Board Resolution made possible by Advocates for American Indian Children

1996 Stances of the United Methodist Church toward Native Peoples including the Church's position Concerning Demeaning Names to Native Americans

1994 Resolution by the Native American Journalists Association, et al

1993 Resolution on the mascot issue from the National Congress of American Indians, the oldest, largest and most representative American Indian advocacy organization of its kind.   This is one of several NCAI mascot resolutions.  Also see the NCAI's 1998 position statement on anti-defamation and mascots.

1993 Resolution by the Commission on Catholic Community Action that calls upon the Cleveland MLB team to drop its "Wahoo" logo and enter into a dialogue on its race-related nickname.

1993 Resolution by the Washington State Department of Public Instruction

1992 mascot resolution by the American Indian Language and Culture Education Board, Wisconsin State

1988 Minnesota State Board of Education Resolution Urging the Elimination of Racially Derogatory Mascots, Symbols, or Emblems

1988 Recommendations from the Michigan Civil Rights Commission Report on Use of Nicknames, Logos and Mascots Depicting Native American People in Michigan Education Institutions

ERIC Digest Countering Prejudice against American Indians and Alaska Natives through Antibias Curriculum and Instruction 

"I" is Not for Indian: The Portrayal of Indians in Books for Young People Compiled by the American Indian Library Association, this in-depth item covers stereotyping and is designed as an aid to educators searching for quality books by and about Indian peoples. This extensive article also includes a select bibliography of desirable and undesirable titles.  This item is one of many useful resources found at pages by Lisa Mitten.

First Americans for Grade Schoolers is a thoughtfully constructed site that offers activities and resources for children and teachers alike.  Of particular interest may be the section which concerns stereotypes and the mascot issue.  This site has been made possible by Karen Martin, a Muscogee (Creek) woman, employed by the University of Arizona.

Cartoons concerning American Indian Mascots is a collection of cartoons that provide some interesting insights and perspectives into this issue.  Also see Propaganda Images which draws parallels between World War II propaganda and American Indian sports team mascots and symbols.  Warning: May contain items offensive to some people.

Negative Labels and Oppression is an annotated letter by Dr. Michael Yellow Bird outlining detriments associated with the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" and other "Indian" related nicknames.  Also see "Indian, American Indian, and Native Americans: Counterfeit Identities"

A bibliography containing titles relating to American Indian stereotypes and associated topics.

In Whose Honor?  This is the award winning video that has aired on PBS and focuses on the efforts of Charlene Teters in her work addressing the "Chief Illiniwek" fetish used by the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

This article called, "Not for Sport", appeared in the respected Southern Poverty Law Center's  Teaching Tolerance magazine in recognition of National American Indian Heritage Month 1998.

ALSO SEE "Issue Specific Links" for some related organizations that are addressing the institutionalized use of "Indian" sports team tokens.

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