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Main Index

Definition and rationale for term "American Indian"
- Indian, American Indian, and Native Americans: Counterfeit Identities, Michael Yellow Bird, Ph.D.

Articles on the 'net
Articles found elsewhere
Other items (Videos and documents)

Educators Resources
- Legal reviews bibliography on trademark and copyright issues relating to "Indian" sports team tokens  
- "Indians" and Animals: A Comparative Essay, David Rider, Ph.D.
- Negative Labels and Oppression, Michael Yellow Bird, Ph.D.
- Why Educators Can't Ignore Indian Mascots, Cornel Pewewardy, Ph.D.
- Society of Indian Psychologists Draft mascot letter
- Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council Resolution
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Resolutions by the Anthropology and History departments, College of Medicine, Center for African Studies
Dr. Robert Ward's  Washington State Tribunal Court Decision  
- NCAA Committee opposes mascot use

More Educators Resources

- 2002 Mascot resolution New Hampshire State Board of Education
- 2002 Mascot resolution
North Carolina State Advisory Council on Indian Education
- 2002 Mascot resolution Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Board
- 2002 Mascot resolution Iowa Civil Rights Commission
- 2002 Mascot resolution Illinois State University Student Government Association
- 2001 Mascot resolution American Counseling Association
- 2001 Mascot resolution
Minnesota Indian Education Association
- 2001 Mascot resolution Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muskogee, Cherokee, and Seminole Nations
- 2001 Mascot position statement National Conference for Community and Justice issued a Statement
- 2001 Mascot resolution Modern Language Association
- 2001 Mascot position statement  United States Commission on Civil Rights 
- 2001 Mascot position statement New York State Education Department position statement
- 2001 Mascot resolution Maryland Commission on Indian Affairs
- 2001-2000 Mascot resolution National Education Association (09/21/02 - link not active. NEA reports site being redesigned)
- 2000 Mascot resolution Associated Students Council of San Diego State University
- 2000 Mascot resolution North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs
- 2000 Mascot resolutions Native American Caucus of the California Democratic Party
- 2000 Mascot resolution Southern California Indian Center
- 2000 Mascot resolution Medicine Wheel Intertribal Association 
- 2000 Mascot resolution Juaneņo Band of Mission Indians
- 2000 Mascot resolution Tennessee Chapter of the National Coalition for the Preservation of Indigenous Cultures
- 2000 Mascot resolution Peoria Tribe of Indians
- 2000 letter to trustees of the University of Illinois from the Southern Poverty Law Center

- 2000 List of Organizations Endorsing Retirement of "Indian" Sports Team Tokens
- 2000 Legal reviews bibliography on trademark and copyright issues relating to "Indian" sports team tokens
- 1999 Resolution "On the Negative Effects of Stereotyping Native Americans" by the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 
- 1999 U.S. Census Bureau Policy on Using Athletic Teams with American Indian or Alaska Native Names in Promoting Census 2000
- 1999 Mascot resolution Georgia House of Representatives (drafted but not passed)
- 1999 Resolution by the Hutchinson (KS) Human Relations Commission
- 1999 Illiniwek stance of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas
- 1999 Mascot resolution adopted by the NAACP and the 1992 version
- 1999 Mascot resolution of the Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs
- 1999 Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council Resolution
- 1998 Resolution by the Kansas Association for Native American Education
- 1998 Statement on team names by the American Jewish Committee
- 1998 Mascot resolution  Governors' Interstate Indian Council
- 1997 Mascot resolution by the Los Angeles School Board. Made available by Advocates for American Indian Children

- 1996 Stances of the United Methodist Church toward Native Peoples including the Church's position Concerning Demeaning Names to Native Americans
- 1994 Mascot resolution Native American Journalists Association, et al

- 1993 Mascot Resolution from the National Congress of American Indians
- 1993 Resolution by the Washington State Department of Public Instruction
- 1993 "Wahoo" Resolution by the Commission on Catholic Community Action
- 1992 mascot resolution by the American Indian Language and Culture Education Board, Wisconsin State

- 1992 Mascot resolution NAACP 

- 1991/92 National Education Association Resolutions
- 1988 Minnesota State Board of Education Resolution
- 1988 Recommendations from the Michigan Civil Rights Commission
- Cartoons concerning American Indian Mascots
- Propaganda Images
- Negative Labels and Oppression
- "Indian, American Indian, and Native Americans: Counterfeit Identities"
- Bibliography containing titles relating to American Indian stereotypes and associated topics


Get Involved Now
- 13 Lucky Tips for Advocates

State by State mascot info

Alabama Colorado Hawaii Kansas Mass. Montana New Mexico Oklahoma S. Dakota Virginia
Alaska Connecticut Idaho Kentucky Michigan Nebraska New York Oregon Tennessee Washington
Arizona Delaware Illinois Louisiana Minnesota Nevada N. Carolina Penn. Texas W. Virginia
Arkansas D.C. Indiana Maine Mississippi New Hamp. N. Dakota R.I. Utah Wisconsin
California Florida Iowa Maryland Missouri New Jersey Ohio S. Carolina Vermont Wyoming

Related links
Issue Specific
- Archive of articles from the Daily Illini concerning "Chief Illiniwak"
- Cyber Hall of Shame (statistics on top 10 states using "Indian" mascots and nicknames)
- "Some Honor" slideshow of "Indian" mascot images
- Cartoons concerning American Indian Mascots
- Propaganda Images
- University of North Dakota "Money, Moniker, and Morality"
 - A Season of Brilliance - Biographical essay on Louis Francis Sockalexis
American Indian

Psychological Considerations

Miscellaneous Documents

American Indian Sports Team Mascots

E-mail American Indian Sports team mascots at