2000 - California DMV Cancellation of "Redskin" License Plate

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football team. Rather, ..."Redskins" clearly both refers to [the NFL] professional football team and [also] carries the allusion to Native Americans inherent in the original definition of that word. (p. 1742)

[P]etitioners have clearly established... that ... the word "redskin(s)", as it appears in the [the NFL football team's marks in [the trademark] registration ... may disparage Native Americans, as perceived by a substantial composite of Native Americans...." (p. 1743)

(T)he evidence supports the conclusion that a substantial composite of the general public finds the word "redskin(s)" to be a derogatory term of reference to Native Americans. (p. 1744)

[E]xcerpts from various articles and publications about language... include, often in a larger discussion about bias in language, the assumption or conclusion that the word "redskin(s)" as a term of reference to Native Americans is, and always has been, a pejorative term. (p. 1744)

The vast majority of newspaper headlines, newspaper articles, and excerpts from books and periodicals from the late 1800's and early 1900's, which include the word "redskin(s)" as a reference to Native Americans, clearly portray Native Americans in a derogatory or otherwise negative manner. (p. 1745)

(T)he word "redskin(s)" does not appear during the second half of this century in written and spoken language, formal or informal, as a synonym for "Indian" or "Native American'' because it is, and has been since at least the 1960's, perceived by the general population, which includes Native Americans, as a pejorative term for Native Americans. (p. 1745)

The pejorative nature of "redskins" in the early historical writings of record comes from the overall negative viewpoint of the writings. (p. 1745)

The derogatory connotation of the word "redskin(s)" in connection with Native Americans extends to the term "Redskins", as used in the [NFL professional football team's] marks may be disparaging of Native Americans to a substantial composite of this group of people. (p. 1748)



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