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1992 - A Time for Remembering, Reconciling and Recommitting...


National Conference of Catholic Bishops(NCCB)  NCCB 1-800-235-8722
Issued as an apologia on the quincentennial of Columbus' voyage, the Church strongly urges Catholics to address racial stereotypes of Native Americans. Includes quotes from Pope John Paul II 
A Brave Move


Steve Wulf 

Sports Illustrated

Oregon's largest newspaper will no longer use American Indian related sports team nicknames.
American Indians: Still a stereotype to many children


Richard Flaste 

New York Times

Poignantly illustrates common misperceptions children have about Native Americans through quotations given by first-graders. Also found in the book American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children. 
An Indian affair: American Indian students concerned about nicknames


Marty Rabovsky 

New York Times

Some of the first efforts at changing mascots/nicknames are documented in this article which is also found in Arlene Hirshfelder's American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children.
Colville downplays mascot name 


John Craig 

The Spokesman-Review

Honoring input from the Colville Confederated Tribes (Wash.), a high school agrees that its "Indians" nickname is no longer acceptable.
"Drop the chop! Indian nicknames just aren't right


Tim Giago 

New York Times

The outspoken former editor and publisher of Indian Country Today counters some of the most common arguments used to support the pro-mascot position.
The Emergence of the Plains Indian as the Symbol of the North American Indian


John C. Ewers

Smithsonian Instititution Annual Report 1964, Govenment Printing Office, 1965.  

This important article chronicles the transformation of the "Plains Indian" into a generic national symbol simplistically (and erroneously) representing all American Indian peoples.    This item is also found in Arlene Hirshfelder's book, "American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children."
Getting off easy


Author not cited 

Phi Delta Kappan

Suggests that honoring Native American's request to end the use of race related a mascot isn't asking for much when compared to history.
Higher education, higher values: The anatomy of a logo decision

Summer 1991

William E. Sheldon , president of Eastern Michigan University

Educational Record issue 3, vol. 72

An eloquently stated and insightful article about the considerations that affected EMU's decision to change its "Huron" sports team nickname.
I hope the Redskins lose


Tim Giago


The unfortunate headline notwithstanding, Mr. Giago asks fans to substitute other skin colors in place of red as they watch the Superbowl.  Some interesting points and quotes are found here as well. 
Indian-named mascots an assault on self-esteem 


Tim Giago 

Indian Country Today

Perspectives on sports fan mockery of Indian traditions are noted as a detriment to Native People's self-esteem.
It's time for Redskins to exit


Ira Berkow 

New York Times

Accompanying the decision by Miami University of Ohio, the columnist, an alumnus of that school, argues in favor of the name change.
Mascot flap to continue in Colville 


John Craig 

The Spokesman-Review

The strong emotional element inherent in this issue is apparent in this article covering the Colville, H.S. (WA) "Indians."
The Rosa Parks of American Indians


Bruno J. Navarro

The New Mexican

Charlene Teters, the primary advocate in the "Chief Illiniwek" controversy, explains that she took up the cause for the benefit of her children.

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The following items are drawn from legal reviews and primarily concern
trademark and copyright issues
relating to "Indian" sports team tokens  

This bibliography has kindly been provided by:  

Tom Baxter, USA 66-69, Vietnam  67-69
Progressive Librarians
Veterans for Peace
PO Box 10358, Tallahassee, Florida 32302-9752
W  850-414-3300  H  850-893-7390

For information on these items inquiries may be sent to:

Ethnic Team Names and Logos - Is There a Legal Solution? Spring 1996, 6644 words 
Cathryn L. Claussen 6 Marquette Sports Law Journal 409


 Group Rights to Cultural Survival: Intellectual Property Rights in Native American Cultural Symbols

Spring, 1998, 20683 words

Terence Dougherty

29 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 355


The Indians' Chief Problem: Chief Wahoo as State Sponsored Discrimination and a Disparaging Mark 1998, 18571 words
 Jack Achiezer Guggenheim 46 Cleveland State Law Review 211


Legislative Epilogue

Winter 1994/Spring 1995 

N. Kathryn Hensley

5 DePaul-LCA Journal of Art and Entertainment Law 157 


Not even his name: Is the Denigration of Crazy Horse Custer's Final Revenge? Winter, 1994 
Jessica R. Herrera

29 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 175


"Scalping the Redskins: Can Trademark Law Start Athletic Teams Bearing Native American Nicknames and Images on the Road to Racial Reform? Spring, 1994 
Bruce C. Kelber 17 Hamline Law Review 533


A Case of First Impression: American Indians Seek Cancellation of the Trademarked Term "Redskins," April, 1996 
George Likourezos

78 Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society 275


 Native American Team Names in Athletics: It's Time to Trade These Marks


Paul E. Loving 13 Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Journal 1


Rules of the Game: Sovereignty and the Native American Nation: Memory and Misrepresentation: Representing Crazy Horse

Summer 1995 

Nell Jessup Newton

27 Connecticut Law Review 1003


The Washington Redskins Case and The Doctrine of Disparagement: How Politically Correct Must a Trademark Be?

December, 1994, 27813 words 

Kimberly A. Pace

22 Pepperdine Law Review 7


Comment: The Mascot Name Change Controversy: A Lesson in Hypersensitivity

1994, 10653 words 

John B. Rhode 5 Marquette University Marquette Sports Law Journal 141


The Fiftieth Cleveland-Marshall Fund Lecture: Indian Law and the Miner's Canary: The signs of Poison Gas


Rennard Strickland

39 Cleveland State Law Review 483


Native American Mascots, Schools, and the Title VI Hostile Environment,

1995, 20916 words 

Daniel J. Trainor 

1995 University of Illinois Law Review 971


"Scandalous" or Disparaging"? It should make a difference in opposition and cancellations actions: Views on the Lanham Act's Section 2(A) prohibitions using the Example of Native American Symbolism in Athletics

Winter, 1998 ____

Ethan G. Zlotchew 22 Columbia-VLA Journal of Law and the Arts 217


A Public Accommodations Challenge to the Use of Indian Team Names and Mascots in Professional Sports

February, 1999, 11842 words

112 Harvard Law Review 904


The "Drunken Indian": Myth Distilled into Reality Through Federal Indian Alcohol Policy Spring, 1996, 47637 words
Robert J. Miller  & Maril Hazlett 28 Arizona State Law Journal 223


Letters from the Longhouse: Law, Economics and Native American Values,

September, 1992 / October, 1992, 33282 words 

Robin Paul Mallory 1992 Wisconsin Law Review 1569


Is American Law Inherently Racist? 1998, 13466 words 
Richard Delgado & Daniel A. Farber 15 Thomas M. Cooley Law Review 361


Wolf Warriors and Turtle Kings: Native American Law before the Blue Coats October, 1997
Rennard Strickland 72 Washington Law Review 1043


Crazy Snake and the Creek Struggle for Sovereignty: The Native American Legal Culture and American Law October, 1990 
 Sidney L. Harring American Journal of Legal History


Columbus's Legacy: Law as an Instrument of Racial Discrimination against Indigenous People's Rights of Self-determination


Robert A. Williams, Jr. 8 Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 51


Red Tape: How American Laws Ensnare Native American Lands, Resources and People Spring-Summer 1998
Matthew Atkinson 23 Oklahoma City University Law Review 379


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